Electrex’s solutions for complying with Article 8 (Energy Audits and Energy Management Systems) of the EU Energy Efficiency Directive
Article 8 (Energy Audits and Energy Management Systems) of the EU Energy Efficiency Directive imposes two main obligations upon Member States: to promote the availability of energy audits among final customers in all sectors and to ensure that enterprises that are not SMEs carry out energy audits at least every four years.
Who must be compliant with the directive?
You must take part in Article 8 if your organization qualifies as a large undertaking.
A large undertaking is:
– any undertaking that meets either one or both of the conditions below:
– it employs 250 or more people
– it has an annual turnover in excess of 50 million euro, and an annual balance sheet total in excess of 43 million euro
More detailed info on the Article 8 can be found at the bottom of this page.
The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) hold the mandate to develop energy audit standards that provide the minimum requirements for compliance with Art.8.
New guidelines for improving the implementation
DG Energy of the European Commission is planning to prepare guidelines for improving the implementation of the Energy Efficiency Directive Article 8 on Energy Audits and Energy Management Systems by early 2018.
Here below some of recommendations adopted for immediate action by the CEN/CENELEC:
- Include an energy consumption threshold in the definition of large enterprises
- Accept ISO 50001 as a proof of compliance with art.8
- Provide guidelines for harmonized energy consumption measurements
- Promote supporting schemes for the implementation of voluntary EE measures in SMEs
- Support an holistic approach and promote the audits as a de-risking tool for EE project financing
It is a good catalyzer for making large enterprises focus on their energy consumption, greenhouse gas emission footprint and multiple benefits of energy efficiency.
Carrying out energy audits
Audits must be undertaken by qualified/accredited experts or supervised by independent authorities. The feedback that we are receiving from the different countries suggests that many of Europe’s businesses may be under-prepared for EU Energy Efficiency Directive.
Indeed, the call for compliance is set for the 5-th of December 2019.
The consequences of not being compliant are various and involve financial penalties, loss of business and reputation.
In the UK, for instance, the fine for non-compliance can be up to £50,000.
Compliant energy audits
A compliant energy audit must meet this criteria:
1. It must be based on 12 months’ verifiable data
The data must:
– be for a continuous period
– begin no more than 24 months before the start of the energy audit
– not have been used as the basis for an energy audit in a previous compliance period
2. It must analyze the participant’s energy consumption and energy efficiency
3. It must identify energy saving opportunities
Qualification for Article 8 is based on the status of your organization on 31 December 2018, and every four years after that for each subsequent compliance period.
How we can help you
The Electrex Monitoring networks are the ideal solution for energy audits, continuous monitoring (e.g. ISO 50001) and for energy efficiency projects (e.g. EU-Directive 2012-27 and White Certificates or Energy Efficiency Certificates).
Since 1993 Electrex designs, develops and manufactures, instruments and software for energy monitoring and management.
Our systems are modular and can expand over time thanks to the many possibilities of connecting the devices (Wi-Fi, RS485, E-Wi, ExpBus, Ethernet, NFC), and of display and management of the data collected.
With a single system, you can keep track of all energy carriers (electricity, gas, water, etc.), of environmental parameters related to them (temperature, humidity, luminosity, CO2, etc.), of process parameters (compressed air , calories, level, status, etc.) and automate the management of ON/OFF switches, automatic adjustments, remote management, alarms and more to achieve the main objective: to reduce energy costs by optimizing production.
The Electrex solutions are used in the Energy Efficiency and Energy Automation applications, for the industrial, tertiary, residential and renewable resources sectors allowing a rapid return on investment.
Over the last 30 years, different approaches have been developed. In addition to waiting for a piece of equipment to fail (reactive maintenance), we can utilize preventive maintenance, predictive maintenance, or reliability centered maintenance.
Reactive maintenance is basically the “run it till it breaks” maintenance mode. No actions or efforts are taken to maintain the equipment.
Preventive maintenance can be defined as follows: performing regular, pre-scheduled maintenance checks and repairs — whether they are needed or not.
Predictive maintenance can be defined as follows: maintenance based on the actual condition of equipment rather than a predetermined schedule.
The Predictive Maintenance approach is the most efficient one. It evaluates the condition of equipment by performing periodic or continuous (online) equipment condition monitoring. The ultimate goal of PdM is to perform maintenance at a scheduled point in time when the maintenance activity is most cost-effective and before the equipment loses performance within a threshold. This is in contrast to time- and/or operation count-based maintenance, where a piece of equipment gets maintained whether it needs it or not.
One of the advantages of the predictive approach is that it allows to prioritize the activities / equipment depending on the judgment of the owner/operator and their contribution on the return on investment.
The efficiency of this approach derives from the leverage of a multi-sources data. Indeed, it may consider direct or indirect information coming from different systems: MES, BMS, EMS, etc.
According to the the U.S. Department of Energy (source: Operations & Maintenance Best Practices: A Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency), predictive maintenance and data analytics can save up to 20% per year on maintenance and energy costs.
HOW EMS (Energy Management Systems) CAN DRIVE THE PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE
As technology improves, both MMS (Maintenance Management Systems) and EMS (Energy Management Systems) develop capabilities and therefore create opportunities for integration. The energy, environmental or other data gathered from the EMS can be used in order to understand the performance of equipment/system. The exchange of data and implementation of analytics between the two systems allows for condition-based monitoring and editing of energy profiles for each component. This new approach utilize measurements on the actual equipment in combination with measurement of energy and process performance, measured by other devices, to trigger equipment maintenance.
Modern equipment can make multiple parameter measurements. An energy analyzer monitoring a plastic molding machine can use its built-in inputs and outputs in order to integrate data regarding the number of parts produced or other energy vectors (steam, natural gas, etc.) involved.
A good example is with HVAC systems. Traditionally, air filters and other components are changed as part of a time-based activity – filters may get changed every 3 months, needed or not. Energy Monitoring Systems can instead calculate the energy profile of that component as well as provide custom KPI that activate notifications toward the maintenance team. The component change / repair becomes an automatically generated work order.
This is a more efficient approach since the maintenance activity is performed at the ideal time, resources are not used on not priority work, and the systems is maintained at a higher level of performance.
THE ELECTREX SOLUTIONS
The Electrex Energy Management System architecture is based on three main elements:
- Measurement devices and data collection: our microprocessor based energy analyzers, I/O devices and sensors offer advanced features. Our smart devices assure a direct and very fast access to the measurements and information retrieved. We do measure environmental and process parameters and integrate third party devices as energy consumption is strictly connected to temperature, luminosity, production cycles, tenants, etc.
- Data-logging and communication: our devices are equipped with builtin memory, clock and calendars in order to locally store, with the highest frequency, the most critical measurements using a redundant and multi-nodes approach. In this way no data can be lost due to communication or system failure. The builtin or external communication modules use the most open and transparent protocol Ethernet TCP/IP. It offers reliability, integration with other systems and direct access from each level / stakeholder.
- Data analytics, reporting and publishing: our solution uses three main platforms; built-in web server in each device, PC based software and cloud interface. Each of them allow to automatically manage real-time and historical data, configure alarms and notifications, deliver custom reports. We believe that the user is the owner of the data collected. Therefore we offer to him all the flexibility and the needed tools to get the most out of our platforms.
Multi-source data integration and synchronization
The advantage of the Electrex monitoring and control systems stands in the possibility to integrate data regarding energy, environment and process parameters using a unique time reference.
Indeed, in addition to the energy analyzers monitoring energy consumption and Power Quality the Electrex systems include multi-function sensors, I-O modules and gateways.
This is a key feature since the calculation of the KPI and other indicators needs synchronized data.
The Electrex devices of the Net series are equipped with a built-in clock / calendar with astronomical real time management of the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). It manages also the rules for the automatic switching from Standard Time at summer time (Daylight Saving Time) and vice versa. Automatic clock synchronization via NTP server.
Operating time counters
The Electrex devices of the Net series allow to monitor and log the operating time of a load/appliance and the relative amount of energy consumed. Up to 4 time counters are triggered every time a configured parameter exceeds a certain threshold or from the ON/OFF state of an electrical contact via the inputs provided on the smart energy analyzer. As you may see in the image here below this feature is directly linked with the monitoring of the actual condition of the equipment since it will track the actual use of the component / device and not the estimated one.
As you may see in the following image, the time counters are triggered by advanced alarms considering multiple variable and using AND/OR logic.
Automated alarms and e-mail/sms notifications
This feature allows to manage simple alerts (threshold value monitoring), complex ones (considering simultaneously more parameters like threshold values, I/O states, custom calendars) and the sending of e-mail/sms notifications and local or remote commands for controlling I/O modules. It is a cornerstone of the predictive maintenance approach since it makes possible to intervene when needed but before the component is critically deteriorated and causing a breakdown. The Electrex devices can be equipped also with a built-in Ladder programming editor in order to manage complex applications and automate further the sending of the e-mail/sms as shown in the image here below.
Data Analytics , reporting and sharing with maintenance systems
The Electrex solutions use three main platforms:
- Built-in WEB server: the Electrex devices can be equipped with a built-in web server displaying real-time and historical data. The web interface can be browsed from any device with a browser (smartphone, tablet, PC) locally or remotely. It is a useful and flexible tool for specific equipment checking.
- PC based software: the Energy Brain software integrates all the data coming from the devices in the field. The measurements are put into relation with each-other in order to detect trends and compare performances. It allows to refine the information applying data analytics and supports the user to understand component issues and therefore prioritize maintenance actions.
- Cloud platform: the cloud platform makes possible to publish on the web clear, customized dashboard interfaces that help the user follow the components/systems most relevant to him.
Each of the interfaces above allow to automatically manage real-time and historical data, configure alarms and notifications, deliver custom reports. The data retrieved from our devices can be transformed within any of the above environments in other unities ( for e.g. kWh in €) using conversion factors and mathematical operations.
The Electrex data displaying platforms have been designed keeping integration with third party systems in mind. Indeed, Energy Brain can import data from other systems as well as export in an automated way Excel or CSV files locally or toward FTP folders. The user can schedule the sending and the kind of data to be exported. The devices with the built-in web interface can instead send (push) data from their data-logging systems into remote FTP folders of third party systems (for e.g. SAP, SCADA, etc.).
A useful feature for generating co-benefits for other systems. For example, the same maintenance notification for that specific component can be delivered also toward the inventory system generating an automatic re-order.
For the maintenance systems this means receiving already refined data and avoiding paperwork or manual tracking activities.
The advantages of predictive maintenance are many. A well-orchestrated predictive maintenance program will eliminate catastrophic equipment failures, reduce maintenance costs, increase productivity and assure a faster ROI.
As seen here above the energy monitoring systems can contribute to more efficient maintenance operations. Electrex working with worldwide premium companies since more than 25 years has gather a precious know-how in how to design useful devices and software that produce benefits also in other areas not strictly connected with energy.
Since 1993 Electrex designs, develops, manufactures and markets, Made in Italy, instruments and software for energy measurement, management and control. The Electrex solutions are used in the energy efficiency and Energy Automation applications, for the industrial, commercial, public, civil, and renewable energy sectors allowing a rapid return on investment. Electrex, one of the first companies to operate in these sectors, has acquired over the years a considerable experience and competence that few other companies can claim to have. With over 40% of the staff dedicated to R & D, we demonstrate our strong commitment to innovation and continuous improvement in order to anticipate the needs of our customers. We follow our products from design to after sale service and support, being a flexible and dynamic company. That is why Electrex continues to be chosen more and more from both local and international partners. The Electrex products are entirely designed, engineered and manufactured in Italy.
Reliability and consistency of electricity supply is one of the most important conditions for the activities of industrial and service companies. Problems originating from poor Power Quality include interruptions, dips or harmonic pollution. Therefore the loads connected to a network with such problems will fail, have a short lifetime and the efficiency of the system will decrease.
According to Leonardo Energy organization the financial losses due to poor Power Quality amount to a total of €150 billion annually in the EU-25. And its impact in the rest of the world is in the same order of magnitude.
COST OF POOR POWER QUALITY
The ideal state of a load would have a constant magnitude and frequency voltage waveform. However this is not possible in real installations (outages, non-zero impedance, etc. ). The consequences of poor Power Quality include:
- Unexpected power supply failures (breakers tripping, fuses blowing).
- Equipment failure or malfunctioning
- Equipment overheating (transformers, motors, …) leading to their lifetime reduction.
- Damage to sensitive equipment (PC‟s, production line control systems, etc.).
- Electronic communication interferences.
- Increase of system losses.
- Need to oversize installations to cope with additional electrical stress with consequential increase of installation and running costs and associated higher carbon footprint.
- Penalties imposed by utilities because the site pollutes the supply network too much.
- Connection refusal of new sites because the site would pollute the supply network too much.
The evaluation of the quality of the power supply considers mainly two parameters:
- the continuity of power supply, understood as no interruptions in the supply of electricity
- the voltage quality, understood as the quality of the waveform (amplitude, frequency, variations, etc.).
There are many factors affecting the quality of electricity. Some of the most important ones are:
- utility related factors (management and functioning of the grid, maintenance, …)
- factors related to the end-user (failures at the user facility, noise emitted on the network, …)
- independent (environmental factors, weather phenomena, damages caused by third parties, …)
Monitoring Power Quality and Harmonics
Power Quality monitoring is already a service provided by the grid utilities to their core customers (big industrial and commercial energy users). Anyway many studies have demonstrated that most of the problems happen within the customer’s facility. This fact means that monitoring the Power Quality after the utility meter provides a range of benefits both for the utility and end-user. This is even more true in a scenario where many end-users are also energy producers.
Monitoring the Power Quality will make possible to detect the sources/causes of problems within the end-user’s network. The solution would be either removing the source or making immune the installation from the the poor power quality. Both solutions usually cost far less than the potential damages that may derive.
Anyway still a large number of end-users do not invest in this field and ignore the efficiency that may derive from fixing the problems with poor Power Quality.
In addition to the lacking of informative awareness among stakeholders, one of the main reasons is also that the a large part of the cost of poor PQ is often hidden. Therefore a monitoring system is one of the fist steps toward the optimization of Power Quality.
How we can help you
Our Power Quality Energy Analyzer & Data Manager Electrex of the Kilo PQ product family, in addition to measuring and managing power consumption, are designed to monitor the Power quality and control whether the installation and the equipment handle properly the workloads.
The Kilo PQ devices are used for:
- the recording of PQ events
- preventive maintenance
- PQ problem detection
- PQ measurement campaigns for specific time periods defined from the user
- monitoring of the compliance with PQ standards or service standards
Power Quality (Class S – EN 61000-4-30): Events Log
The Kilo D6 PQ detects and logs various events with a resolution of one cycle (with date / time * of each event, type of event, phase involved, duration, min / max value reached during the event and UNIPEDE classification) useful for monitoring the quality of energy (functions related also to the EN 50160 and EN 61000-4-30 standards for the S class). The parameters for defining abnormal events are programmable.
The parameters for defining abnormal events are programmable.
- Voltage Dip
- Voltage Swell
- Over current (and its direction)
(*) Date/hour expressed in hours, minutes, seconds and milliseconds referring to the instruments’ (local time). In the table are displayed also some functioning logs as the ones related with the start and configuration settings.
EVENT’S GRAPHIC DETAIL
The Kilo D6 PQ includes the functionality named “event’s graphic detail” that allows to record and display the trends of the beginning and end of the event with a time frame (for both beginning and end) of a second (programmable).
EVENTS TIMELINE AND THE UNIPEDE TABLE
The Kilo D6 PQ can display a timeline of the succession of events
and maintains a diagram of distribution of events based on the % of the parameter considered in relation to its reference value and duration, according to the dictates of UNIPEDE (International Union of Producers and Distributors of Energy).
Example: in the last column of the table here below , the S1 denotes a Voltage Swell with a duration between 10 and 500 mS (refer to the UNIPEDE table above), while the X2 denotes a Voltage Dip lower than 5% of the nominal voltage value with a duration between the 10 and 200 mS.
With the Kilo D6 PQ it is possible to configure the measurement campaign in order to log, in the built-in memory, the various parameters with a programmable sampling.
Example of a daily measurement campaign of the 3 phase voltages:
Regarding the quality of the voltage the Kilo PQ refers to the European standard EN 50160 which distinguishes the different disturbances in continuous phenomena and voltage events.
The continuous phenomena include:
- frequency variations
- variations of the supply voltage
- voltage unbalance
- harmonic voltages
The voltage events include:
- interruptions of the supply voltage
- voltage dips
- super-elevations at industrial frequency and transient voltage
Origin of disturbances
Noises are always present in electrical networks and are mainly produced by:
- failure on the supply line of the user or on the other lines connected to it
- failures of internal networks of customers
- inrush currents of transformers and capacitors
- rapidly varying loads and peak currents of motors
- non-linear loads
Voltage quality indicators. What to measure.
The monitoring voltage quality examines the following parameters:
- amplitude and rapid / slow changes of voltage
- voltage dips
- voltage unbalance
When running a Power Quality monitoring program, it is important to consider that the network changes continuously. Traditional measuring devices are not suitable for monitoring non linear loads as the equipment used must measure in True RMS and must specify the range of single Harmonic measured.
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